Curriculum Vitae

Fred E. Foldvary

Lecturer in Economics

Department of Economics, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192

ph 510-590-2469, fax 408-924-5406, [email protected]


All activities listed in reverse chronology



Ph.D., Economics, George Mason University, 1992.

Dissertation, Public Goods and Private Communities.

            Thesis Director: Professor Richard E. Wagner.  1992

            The dissertation extends theories of public goods and industrial organization to residential  associations and other private communities, with case studies on the market provision of collective goods, rebutting market-failure arguments.


Master of Arts, Economics, George Mason University, 1990.


B.A., Economics and computer science, University of California, Berkeley, 1970.



Phii Beta Kappa, Honor Student (U.C. Berkeley)


Editor experience

Editor, Topical Time magazine, 1981 to 1987.

Responsible for selecting and editing articles, handling ads, obtaining proofs, and layout.



Lecturer in Economics, San Jose State University, 2006 to present day.


Lecturer in Economics, Santa Clara University, September 1998 - 2012.

Co-director, Civil Society Institute, Santa Clara University., 2005-2012.


Topics taught: principles of microeconomics, principles of macroeconomics,

public finance, real estate economics, law and economics, history of economic thought.


Past positions at California State University at Hayward, John F. Kennedy University (California), Virginia Tech, and the Latvian University of Agriculture.


Other teaching


Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) class, “Policy for social well being,” SCU, Nov. 7, 14.

Student seminars, Independent Institute, Oakland, California


Economic and Social Policy Institute (ESPI), Belgrad, Serbia, July 2007, 2008.

“Summer School of Economics: Vienna and Chicago, Two Schools of Free-Market Economics. <>




Atlas Foundation's Antony Fisher International Memorial Award for Public Goods and Private Communities, 1995.


First-place winner, doctoral dissertation, 1992,  Community Associations Institute Research Foundation's  Award of Excellence.


Editorial Board

American Journal of Economics and Sociology

Econ Journal Watch



SSRN Author Home Page: <>


Books authored


(with Fernando Scornik Gerstein) The Marginalists and the Special Status of Land as a Factor of Production.  2010.  London: The International Union for Land-Value Taxation.


The Depression of 2008.  Gutenberg Press, 2007. 36 pages.  1st ed. July 3, 2nd ed. Sept. 18.

SSRN: (Working Paper Series)


The Science of Economics.  2008.  Formatted in 2007 by Julius Krause in Kosovo, from my manuscript written in 1999 with later revisions. 


Published in hard copy by University Readers, San Diego, 2008,  ISBN 978-1-934269-15-2


The Ultimate Tax Reform: Public Revenue from Land Rent.  2006.  Santa Clara University: Civil Society Institute (Policy Study).  SSRN: 



Das Lexicon der Freien Marktwirtschaft.  Trans. Hans Günter Holl.  Verlag Wirtschaft und Finanzen,  Düsseldorf, Germany, 2000.   German edition of Dictionary of Free-Market Economics.


Dictionary of Free Market Economics.  Edward Elgar  Publishing, UK, 1998 (307 pages).


Public Goods and Private Communities, Edward Elgar Publishing, U.K., 1994. 


The Soul of Liberty.  Gutenberg Press, 1980. 330 pages.


Books translated


Public Goods and Private Communities: the Market Provision of Social Services.  2006. Trans. into Italian: Beni pubblici e comunità privateCome il mercato può gestire i servizi pubblici.  Prefazione di Stefano Moroni (2010), 387 pages, ISBN: 978-88-6440-015-0

Torino: Institute Bruno Lioni.



Public Goods and Private Communities: the Market Provision of Social Services.  2006. Trans. Into Chinese by Zhen Bingwen.  Economy & Management Publishing House <> .  Beijing, China.  ISBN 987-7-80162-835-0


Books edited


The Half-Life of Policy Rationales: How Technology Affects Old Policy Issues (with D. Klein).  Cato Institute in partnership with New York University Press, 2003.


Beyond Neoclassical Economics: Heterodox  Approaches to EconomicTheory,  Edward Elgar Publishing, U.K., October 1996.  Anthology of revised papers from a1995 EEA conference panel.


Academic Journal Articles


(2008), “The Marginalists Who Confronted Land.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 67 (January): 89–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00561.x


“Answering the Questions on LVT.”  Economic Affairs 27(2)(June 2007): 88-89.



“The Real Estate Cycle and the Depression of 2008.”  Groundswell 20 (4)  May/June 2007.



“The Measurement of Inequality, Concentration and Diversification.”  Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 54, No. 3, September-December 2006. SSRN:


“Planning by Freehold.”  Economic Affairs 25(4)(December 2005): 11-15.



“The Ethical, Governmental, and Economic Elements of Secession.”  Santa Clara Journal of International Law, Volume III, Issue 2 (2005): 192-211.



“Infrastructure: Optimal Private and Governmental Funding and Provision.”  Economic Affairs 25(1)(March 2005): 11-15.


“Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists.”  Econ Journal Watch, Vol. 2, No. 1., pp. 1-12. <>


“Foldvary on ‘Echoes of Henry George’”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology 63 (5) (Nov. 2004): 1139-47.


“Technological Advancement: The Receding Case for Government Intervention.”  With Daniel Klein.  STS Nexus 4, no. 2 (2004): 38-46.


“The Fatal Conceit Revisited” with Daniel Klein.  Tech Central Station.  17 Feb. 2003.



“La arrogancia fatal reconsiderada” por Daniel B. Klein y Fred E. Foldvary

Traducido por Juan Carlos Hidalgo, 2003 (from the above)



“Virtual Barbed Wire” with Daniel Klein.   Tech Central Station.  28 July 2003.



“Small-Group, Multi-Level Democracy: Implications of Austrian Public Choice for Governance Structure.”  Review of Austrian Economics 15 (2/3), June 2002: 161-174.




Foldvary, Fred E. and Klein, Daniel B., "The Half-Life of Policy Rationales: How New Technology Affects Old Policy Issues" . Knowledge, Technology, & Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 82-92, Fall 2002.


“The Ethics of Taxation.”

Public Finance and Management, Vol. 1, No. 3 (2001).  Southern Public Administration Education Foundation.


“Ethno-federalism.”  Geophilos 1 (2) (Autumn 2001): 68-82.


"Technology and Market Failure."  With Daniel Klein.   Regulation 24, 2 (Summer 2001): 9-11.


"The Measurement of Inequality, Concentration, and Diversification."  2001.  Journal of Interesting Economics. <>


“The Completely Decentralized City:  the case for benefits-based public finance.”  2001.  American Journal of  Economics and Sociology 60 (1) (January): 403-18.


"Market-hampering Land Speculation: Fiscal and  Monetary Origins and Remedies."  American Journal of  Economics and Sociology 57 (4) (October 1998): 615-37.


"The Business Cycle: A Georgist-Austrian Synthesis." American Journal of  Economics and Sociology 56 (4)  (October 1997): 521-41.



"The Dependency of Wage Contracts on Monetary Policy."  With G. Selgin.  Journal of Institutional and  Theoretical Economics 151, no. 4, December 1995: 658-72.


"Designing the Preconditions of a Market in Land," Nase Gospodarstvo 39, nos. 5-6, 1993: 381-7, translated into Slovenian by Matjaz Mulej.


"On Monopoly Rent: Comment," Land Economics 69, no. 1 (February 1993): 108-110.


"Property Rights and Natural Law," Vera Lex 8, no. 1 (1988), 6-7.


Chapters in Academic Books


"An Austrian Theory of Spatial Land." 2012. In The Spatial Market Process.  Ed. David Emanuel Andresson. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing. Pp. 3-23.


“The Marginalists Who Confronted Land.” 2009.  In Henry George: Political Ideologue, Social Philosopher and Economic Theorist (ed L. S. Moss), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444307054.ch5



"Urban Planning: The Government or the Market." In Housing America: Building Out of a Crisis. Randall G. Holcombe and Benjamin Powell (Eds.). Oakland: The Independent Institute. 2009. Pp. 323-42.


“The Complex Taxonomy of the Factors: Natural Resources, Human Action, and Capital Goods.”  Natural Resources, Taxation & Regulation.  Laurence S. Moss, ed.  Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006: 315-30.


"Streets as Private-Sector Public Goods."  In Street Smart: Competition, Entrepreneurship, and the future of Roads.  Edited by Gabriel Roth.  Oakland, The Independent Institute, and New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 305-325, 2006.


“The economic case for private residential government.”  In Private Cities: Global and local perspectives.  Eds. Georg Glasze, Chris Webster, Klaus Frantz.  London and New York: Routledge.  Pp. 31-44.  2006.

“Public Revenue from Land Rent.”  In Handbook of Public Finance.  Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 165-94


“Heath: Estranged Georgist.”  In Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty.  Ed. Robert V. Andelson.  2nd ed.  Blackwell Publishing; supplement to the American Journal of Economics and Sociology (April 2004): 411-32.


“The Lighthouse as a Private-Sector Collective Good.”  In The Half-life of  Policy Rationales: How Technology Affects Old Policy Issues.   Eds. Fred Foldvary and Daniel Klein.  New York University Press, 2003: 38-46.  Also at:


“Introduction” (with Daniel Klein).  In The Half-life of  Policy Rationales: How Technology Affects Old Policy Issues.   Eds. Fred Foldvary and Daniel Klein.  New York University Press, 2003: 1-18.


“Site-Value Taxation and the Rule of Law.”  In Politics, Taxation, and the Rule of Law: The Power to Tax in Constitutional Perspective.  Eds. Donald Racheter and Richard Wagner.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002: 185-202..


"Proprietary Communities and Community Associations." In The  Voluntary City.  Eds. David Beito, Peter Gordon, and Alexander Tabarrok.  University of Michigan Press, 2002: 258-88.  Reprinted from Public Good and Private Communities.


"Private Streets." Submitted to forthcoming Private Roads to the Future.  Ed. Gabriel Roth.


"Recalculating Consent."  Buchanan Festschrift.  1999.  (Refereed) and


"Government Ownership and Privatization."  In Institutions and Collective Choice in Developing Countries.  Eds. Mwangi Kimenyi and John Mbaku.  (Aldershot, US, and Brookfield, USA: Ashgate, 1999),  291-314.


"The Ethics of Rent."  In Land-Value Taxation: The Equitable and Efficient Source of Public Finance.  Ed. Kenneth C. Wenzer.  Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 184-204.


"Municipal Public Finance."  In Handbook of Public  Finance.  Eds. Fred Thompson  and Mark Green.  (NY: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1998),  397-445.


"Market Reforms and Community Entrepreneurship."  In Self-Transformation of the Forgotten Four-Fifths.  Ed. Robert G. Dyck and Matjas Mulej.  (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 1998),  141-53.


"Franz Oppenheimer, the State, and Land."  In An Anthology of Single Land Tax Thought.  Ed. Kenneth C. Wenzer.  (Rochester: University of Rochester  Press, 1997),  403-38.


"Comparative Economic Theory" in Beyond Neoclassical Economics: Heterodox Approaches to Economic Theory,  Ed. Fred Foldvary.  Edward Elgar Publishing,  U.K., 1996, 1-21. 


"Foundational  Economics"  in Beyond Neoclassical Economics: Heterodox Approaches to Economic Theory,  Ed. Fred Foldvary.  Edward Elgar Publishing,  U.K., 1996, 148-62. 


"Poverty and the Theory of Wages," in Land and Taxation. Ed. Nicolaus Tideman. (London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1994), 141-156.


"Rental Income in the U.S.A." In Costing the Earth, ed. Ronald Banks.  (London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1989),  177-181.


Encyclopedia Entries


“Chodorov, Frank (1887-1966).”  In American Conservatism: an Encyclopedia.  Eds. Bruce Frohnen, Jeremy Beer, Jeffrey Nelson.  Wilmington: ISI Books, pp. 145-6, 2006.


Nonacademic Articles


1997 to current, weekly editorials in The Progress Report,


“Money to the People.”  Berkeley Daily Planet.  March 11, 2009.  



“The state’s complicity in the real estate crash.” Land and Liberty 114, no. 1220 (Winter 2007-8): 18-20.


“Tax bads and untax goods with a green tax shift.”  ISIL Channels.  Jan. 6, 2008.

<>  Editorial.


“A radical free-market remedy for recession.”  Santa Monica Daily Press.  23 Oct. 2007, p. 5.



“Seeing the Cat.”  Prosper Australia.  <>

Jan. 16, 2006


“For Love is Lord of All: Human sympathy can inspire private giving and create social justice.”  explore 8(1)(fall 2005): 19-21.  Ignatian Center for Jesuit Education at Santa Clara University.


“Ny teknik gör regleringar föråldrade.”  With Daniel Klein.  Trellebords Allehanda, 26 July 2003, and Tidningen Ångermanland, 28 July 2003.


“Enron and the Law of the Market.”  Ideas on Liberty 52 (5), May 2002: 20-21.


"Geo-confederacy: The Single-Space Solution for Multi-ethnic Communities."  Land & Liberty, Autumn 1999: 16-7.


"Government and Governance," The Freeman 47, no. 1,  January 1997: 33-37.


"Pied Piper's Promised Land," Land and Liberty, May-June 1983, reprinted in Birthright in Land and The State of Scotland Today, ed. Shirley-Anne Hardy (Scotland: Peregrine Press, 1999), pp. 472-3.


“Geo-libertarianism," Land and Liberty, May/June 1981, pp. 53-55.


Chapters in Nonacademic Books


            "Tax Policy and Land Reform," in ЗЕМЛЯ И СОБСТВЕННОСТЬ (Land and Ownership)  Ed. Chistiakov and M. Gaffney. 1995, 1-18.  Ecograd, St. Petersburg, Russia.   Trans. to  Russian by Chistiakov.


"Land, Rent, and Capital,"  In Capitalism and the "Evil Empire": Reducing Superpower Conflict Through  American Economic Reform, New Horizons Press, 1988, 87-91.


Book Reviews in Scholarly Journals


The property tax and local autonomy, October 2010 issue of CHOICE magazine


CHOICE magazine.  Thomas Sowell, The Housing Boom and Bust.  Submitted 12 August 2009.


January 2009 issue of CHOICE 46(5):

Lowenstein, Roger.  While America aged: how pension debts ruined General Motors, stopped the NYC subways, bankrupted San Diego, and loom as the next financial crisis.  Penguin, 2008.  274p index               


“Uncovering the Costs of the Iraq War.”  Essay-review of Stiglitz, Joseph E. and Linda J. Bilmes. 2008. The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. NY: W. W. Norton.  Econ Journal Watch 5 (3) September 2008: 373-9.



The Distributional effects of government spending and taxation, ed. by Dimitri B. Papadimitriou.  Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.  310p bibl  indexes ISBN 1403996253, $90.00.  December 2006 CHOICE 44(4). <>


Nigel Rapport and Andrew Dawson, eds.  Migrants of Identity.  Oxford and New York: Berg, 1998, for Geophilos, Autumn 2002: 139-141.



Janos Kornai, Highways and Byways: Studies on Reform and Postcommunist Transition, for Public Choice 88 (1997), nos. 1-2: 218-21.


Elwood Pl Lawrence et al, George and Democracy in the British Isles,  in The American Journal of  Economics and Sociology 55,  no. 1 (January 1996): 125-7.


Evan McKenzie, Privatopia by Evan McKenzie, in Cato Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1995): 143-5.


Jonathan Wolff, Robert Nozick: Property, Justice and the Minimal State, in Constitutional Political Economy 2, No. 3 (Fall 1991).


Other Book Reviews


Review of Michael Barone, The New Americans: How the Melting Pot Can Work   Again, for Ideas on Liberty 52, no. 11 (November 2002): 58-9.



Mentioned in articles


The Catholic Review and Catholic News Service, March 8, 2009.  By Chaz Muth.  “Economists say Catholic ethics could benefit global economic policy.”






“Henry Plottre and the Magically Expanding Land,” The Progress Report Aug. 5, 2007.



“Matilda’s Funeral.”  The Progress Report  2006. 



Recent Conference and Seminar Presentations


June 2, 2011, presented a paper, “Classroom Economic Simulation,” at the National Conference on Teaching Economics held at Stanford University, June 1-3, 2011.


4 April 2011.  “The Public Finances and Governance of a Free City,” conference on The Future of Free Cities,  Roatan, Honduras. 


4 January 2011.  "Socio-Economics and Georgist Economics," at the Annual Meeting, Society of Socio-Economists, Haas School of Business, University of California at Berkeley.


September 18, 2009.  “The Private Provision of Public Goods: The History and Future of Communal Liberalism.”  Presented at the conference held by the Friedrich-Naumann-Foundation for Liberty, Truman House, Potsdam, Germany.


“Shifting Back to Property Taxation” Aug. 6, and “What Should be Private?” Aug. 7, Conference of the Council of Georgist Organizations, Aug. 5-9, 2009, Cleveland, Ohio.


“By (Henry) George, Real Estate is the Source of All Our Troubles!"  July 10, 2009, FreedomFest, Las Vegas.


Member of World Economic Summit “All Star Prediction Panel” of persons who accurately predicted the Crash of 2008, July 9, FredomFest, Las Vegas, 9-11 July 2009.


"How the Tax System Creates Depressions Like the Crash of 2008" APEE conference, Westin Camino Real Hotel, Guatemala City, Guatemala.  April 6, 2009.


Feb. 27, 2009:  Eastern Economic Association conference, New York City.  Member of a panel on “Why Georgists correctly predicted the crisis and why (almost) no one took them seriously:

What conventional economics can learn from them--and vice versa.”  Session Sponsored by the Association for Georgist Studies, session organizer and chair: Mary (Polly) Cleveland.  Panel members: Karl E. (Chip) Case, Mason Gaffney, Fred E. Foldvary.


Feb. 28, 2009: panel member, review of the book by Alanna Hartzok, The Earth Belongs to Everyone: author meets commentators.


Dec. 9, 2008: “Small-group, multi-level bottom-up democracy.” Conference on “Economics and Democracy,” Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.


“The Non-Producer Surplus.”  Fourth Annual Meeting, Applied Business and Entrepreneurship Association International, Marriott Wailea Beach Resort, Maui, Hawaii, Nov. 17, 2007


“The Public Finance of Private Communities and Private Transit.”  Conference of the American Dream Coalition, ““Recovering from Smart Growth.”  San Jose, Nov. 11, 2007.


“Why my Georgist Economics Predicts a Depression in 2008.”  FreedomFest, Las Vegas, July 7, 2007.


“Circumventing California’s Proposition 13 for the Public Collection of Rent.”  Conference of the Eastern Economic Association, sessions on property tax reform and land-value taxation, New York City, February 23, 2006


Seminar, Dept. of Economics, Santa Clara University.  “A Synthesis of the Austrian-school and the Georgist Theories of the Business Cycle, and its Empirical Testing.”  Oct. 9, 2006.


“Private Communities as the Natural Benchmark.”  International Symposium, “Territory, Control, and Enclosure: the ecology of urban fragmentation.”  Pretoria, South Africa, Feb. 28-March 3, 2005.



“The Economics of Henry George.”  Berkeley Conference on Socio-Economics, Boalt Hall School of Law.  Jan. 4, 2005.


“The Intellectual Boundedness of the Field of Public Finance.”  Session on “Intellectual Tyranny of the Status Quo,” organizer Pete Boettke, Conference of the  Southern Economic Association, New Orleans, Nov. 21-2, 2004.


“Natural and Constitutional Law on War.”  AMINTAPHIL conference on Contemporary Challenges to Just War Theory.  Palo Alto, Nov. 18, 2004.


“Classroom Economic Simulation.”  Conference on Teaching Economics, Cal State University Fullerton, Oct. 22, 2004.


“The Solution to Territorial Conflict: Pay Rent.”  Conference of the International Union of Land Value Taxation and Free Trade.  Madrid Spain.  May 29, 2004.


“Why We Don’t Need Any Stinkin’ Taxes.”  Freedomfest, Las Vegas, May 15, 2004.


“Apparatchik Economics: the Past and the Future.”  ISIL (International Society for Individual Liberty) Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania, July 10, 2003.


“The Apparatchism of Public Finance.”  Conference of the Association of Private Enterprise Education, “Property Rights and Markets: Bulwarks of the 21st Century,” Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, April 8, 2003.  Session 6.3, “Apparatchik Economics,” Daniel Klein, chairperson.  April 8, 2003.


Keynote speech, “Private Governance as Explicit Contracts among Legal Equals,”  International Conference on Private Urban Governance, Institute of Geography,  Johannes Gutenberg Universität, Mainz, Germany, June 6, 2002


“The Interaction of Real and Financial Causes of Market-Hampering Land Speculation, and Remedies in Fiscal and Monetary Reforms and Risk-Spreading Derivatives.”  Seminar on Land Speculation, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA, March 8, 2002.


"Technology and the Case for Free Enterprise."  Session of the Society for the Development of Austrian Economics on the book,  Half-life of  Policy Rationales: How Technology Affects Old Policy Issues.   Eds. Fred Foldvary and Daniel Klein.  Southern Economic Association conference, Washington DC, Nov. 12, 2000.


"Cellular Democracy and Private Communities: a Remedy for  Political Dysfunction." Session on "Local Governance Issues and Alternatives."  Conference of The Association of Private Enterprise  Education, Las Vegas, Nevada,  April 2-4, 2000


"The Lighthouse as a Private-Sector Collective Good."  Conference on Technology and Policy Justification.  Santa Clara, Jan. 29, 2000.


"Ground Rent Seeking in U.S. Economic History," conference of the Southern Economics Association,  Atlanta, GA, November 21, 1997.


"Municipal Public Finance," conference on public finance, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon,  August 19, 1996.


“Rent Seeking in Communitarian Democracy,” panel on "Models of Political Processes," Western Economic Association, San Francisco, June 30, 1996.


"Is there an Austrian Theory of Public Finance?"  Austrian Scholars Conference, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, Jan. 26, 1996.


Recent Invited Lectures and Participation


with Eric Gampel, “Debate on Universal Medical Care,” California State University at Chico, October 17, 2007.   (Argued in favor of free market.)


Lecture, “The Free Market.”  California State University at Chico, March 28, 2007.


Liberty Fund seminar on “Private Neighborhood Associations and Liberty,” Montreal, Canada.  June 3-6, 2004.


“Community-based solutions to urban problems”  Forum on “The Independent City: Restoring Urban Life in Crisis Times,”  with presentations also by Daniel Klein and Peter Gordon.  The Independent Institute, Oakland, Feb. 4, 2004.


“Abolish the IMF.”  Civil Society Institute in conjunction with the SCU Institute on Globalization, Santa Clara University, May 7, 2003.


“The Social Impact of Greed.”  Panel on "Greed: Vice or Virtue?  A Conversation with the Santa Clara University Greed Group.”  Santa Clara University, Feb. 28, 2002.


“Public Choice and Special Interests:  how the structure of democracy gives power to the few at the expense of the many.”   Ethics at Noon series, Santa Clara University.  Feb. 27, 2002


"Private Governance: The Economics of Market-Based Communities."  California State University, Hayward.  February 9, 2000.


"Between State and Anarchy: A Model of Governance."  Presented at the Université du Québec à Hull, March 26, 1999, for the Anarchy & Liberty Seminar series.


Memberships and Fellowship


Research Fellow, The Independent Institute, Oakland

Academic Fellow, the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies

member, Private Urban Governance and Gated Communities network


member, American Economic Association.

member, Society for the Development of Austrian Economics

member, Association for Geoclassical Studies



Econ Journal Watch

American Journal of Economics and Sociology (editorial board)

Reviewer for Choice journal



Analysis of the U.S. retail environment for Wal-mart, March 15-31, 2005.



“An Open Letter to Congress.”  National Taxpayers Union, Jan. 23, 2003. 



“An Open Letter to Governor George Pataki, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and the New York City Council from 106 Economists* on the Likely Impact of a Taxpayer-Financed Football Stadium in New York City.”  May 23, 2005.